Antibodies for ER Stress

ER Stress Research Focus

ER Stress Research Focus

Introduction

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a cellular organelle responsible for lipid or steroid synthesis, folding or maturation of proteins, calcium storage, and detoxification.

The ER consists of a membrane network of cisternae that goes through the cytoplasma and is in continuous connection with the nuclear envelope. The ER consists of two different regions that differ in their structure and function. The rough ER contains ribosomes attached to the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. The rough ER is mainly responsible for protein synthesis, while the smooth ER is lacking in ribosomes and functions as a storage for key enzymes and their products.

Cellular processes that lead to misfolding of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum lead to ER stress and consequently to the activation of several signaling pathways named the unfolded protein response (UPR). ER stress has been shown to be connected to different neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s or Alzheimer’s disease, inflammation, and cancer

Endoplasmic Reticulum

Most Popular Endoplasmic Reticulum Markers

Antibody Name Catalog number Type
ERp57/ERp60 15967-1-AP Rabbit Poly
ERp72 14712-1-AP Rabbit Poly
GRP94 14700-1-AP Rabbit Poly
PDI 11245-1-AP Rabbit Poly
TAP1 11114-1-AP Rabbit Poly

Immunofluorescence staining of fixed HepG2 cells (10% Formaldehyde) using ERp57/ERp60 antibody (15967-1 AP) at a dilution of 1:50 and goat anti-rabbit IgG(H+L) Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated secondary antibody.

Immunohistochemical staining of paraffinembedded human lung cancer using ERp72 antibody (14712-1-AP) at a dilution of 1:100 (40x objective).

ER Stress In Neurodegenerative Diseases

ER stress is mainly caused by disturbance of the calcium homeostasis and accumulation of misfolded proteins. The ER responds by changing its protein profile, altering its cellular signalling and degradation of misfolded proteins. ER stress has been reported to be involved in different neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s. To date, the exact mechanism and contribution of ER stress to these diseases remain unknown. Elucidation of the involvement of ER stress in neurodegeneration might help in the development of new neuroprotective therapies.

Most Popular Neurodegenerative Related Markers

Antibody name Catalog number Type
AKT1 10176-2-AP Rabbit Poly
alpha-synuclein 10842-1-AP Rabbit Poly
Amyloid beta 60342-1-Ig Mouse Mono
Tau 10274-1-AP Rabbit Poly
TDP-43 10782-2-AP Rabbit Poly
PARK7, DJ-1 11681-1-AP Rabbit Poly

ER Stress and Neurodegenerative Diseases

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

Disruption of the endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis leads to an accumulation of misfolded or unfolded proteins. This stage is called ER stress. ER stress is responsible for the activation of multiple signaling pathways, named the unfolded protein response (UPR). ER stress mainly induces cell dysfunction and cell death. Better understanding of ER stress and related UPR will help to elucidate new targets for ER stressrelated diseases.

Related Antibodies

Antibody Name Catalog Number Type
ASK1 14385-1-AP Rabbit Poly
ATF4 10835-1-AP Rabbit Poly
BCL-XL 12789-1-AP Rabbit Poly
Calnexin 10427-2-AP Rabbit Poly
Caspase3 19677-1-AP Rabbit Poly
Caspase12 55238-1-AP Rabbit Poly
Cytochrome C 66264-1-Ig Mouse Mono
JNK 51151-1-AP Rabbit Poly
XBP1 25997-1-AP Rabbit Poly

ER Stress Pathway

Product Focus: CHOP

Catalog Number

15204-1-AP

Type

Rabbit Polyclonal

Applications

ELISA, FC, IHC, WB

27 Publications

Immunohistochemical staining of paraffin-embedded human cervical cancer using CHOP antibody(15204-1-AP) at a dilution of 1:50 (40x objective)

CHOP, also known as GADD153 or DDIT3, is a highly conserved gene in both the structural and regulatory regions of the hamster gene. Activated in response to unfolded and misfolded proteins, CHOP is significantly induced by ER stress. CHOP deficiency prevents ER stress in cells. CHOP is considered a pro-apoptotic marker of ER stress-dependent cell death. It acts as a dominant-negative inhibitor of the transcription factor C/EBP and LAP by forming a heterodimer. It may also play an important role in the malignant transformation of nevi to melanoma.

Product Focus: GRP78

Catalog number

11587-1-AP

Type

Rabbit Polyclonal

Applications

ELISA, FC, IF, IHC, IP, WB

38 Publications

Immunofluorescence staining of HepG2 cells using GRP78 antibody (11587-1-AP) at a dilution of 1:25 and goat anti-rabbit IgG rhodamine-labelled secondary antibody.

GRP78 (HSPA5), also referred to as ‘immunoglobulin heavy chain-binding protein’ (BiP), is a member of the heat-shock protein-70 (HSP70) family and is involved in the folding and assembly of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). It is a constitutively expressed resident protein of the ER in all eukaryotic cells. Recently it has been reported that GRP78 is associated with apoptosis or inhibition of cancer cell growth.

Product Focus: PERK

Catalog number

24390-1-AP

Type

Rabbit Polyclonal

Applications

ELISA, IF, IHC, WB

1 Publication

Immunohistochemical staining of paraffin-embedded human placenta slide using PERK antibody (24390-1-AP) at a dilution of 1:50

PERK is also known as PEK, EIF2AK3 (Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 3), and belongs to the GCN2 subfamily. It potentially acts as a metabolic sensor in the insulin-secreting beta-cells to modulate the trafficking and quality control of proinsulin in the ER relative to the physiological demands for circulating insulin. PERK and EIF2AK3 also have a functional role in regulating translation under non-stressed conditions, in addition to their long-established roles as stress kinases.

Product Focus: ATF6

Catalog number

24169-1-AP

Type

Rabbit Polyclonal

Applications

ELISA, IF, IHC, IP, WB

6 Publications

 

Immunohistochemical staining of paraffin-embedded human pancreas tissue slide using ATF6 antibody (24169-1-AP) at a dilution of 1:50 (40x objective).

Activating Transcription Factor 6 (ATF6), as the name suggests, is a transcription factor. It increases the expression of unfolded protein response target genes in response to ER stress. It binds DNA on the 5’-CCAC[GA]-3’ half of the ER stress response element (ERSE) (5’-CCAAT-N(9)-CCAC[GA]-3’) and of ERSE II (5’-ATTGG-N-CCACG-3’). During unfolded protein response an approximative 50 kDa fragment containing the cytoplasmic transcription factor domain is released by proteolysis. The cleavage seemso be performed sequentially by site-1 and site-2 proteases. The fully glycosylated form of ATF6, a 670 amino acid protein, exhibits an electrophoretic mobility of ~90 kDa in denaturing SDS-gels, in part because of the glycosylated modifications. ATF6 has 3 consensus sites for N-linked glycosylation and exists constitutively as a glycosylated protein. Differentially glycosylated ATF6 forms may result from mutations or experimental treatment. 

More Endoplasmic Reticulum Related Markers

Antibodies specific for proteins of the endoplasmic reticulum serve to provide more detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating ER stress and to elucidate the roles of proteins related to several diseases.

Antibody Name Catalog Number Type
APP 60342-1-Ig Mouse Mono
BCHE 23854-1-AP Rabbit Poly
CALR 10292-1-AP Rabbit Poly
DLG4 20665-1-AP Rabbit Poly
HMOX1 10701-1-AP Rabbit Poly
HMOX2 14817-1-AP Rabbit Poly
HSPA1A 10995-1-AP Rabbit Poly
IFNG 15365-1-AP Rabbit Poly
P4HB 11245-1-AP Rabbit Poly
PD1A4 14712-1-AP Rabbit Poly
SERCA2 13985-1-AP Rabbit Poly
TAP1 11114-1-AP Rabbit Poly
UGGT1 14170-1-AP Rabbit Poly
VCP 10736-1-AP Rabbit Poly
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Posted:
8 May, 2017

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