Cytoskeleton Markers

The cytoskeleton is a three-dimensional network supporting and stabilizing the cell.


The cytoskeleton is a three-dimensional network supporting and stabilizing the cell. All cells, even bacteria, have a type of cytoskeleton. It is responsible for the shape of the cell and its mechanical properties. Many dynamic cellular processes cooperate with the cytoskeleton, such as cell motion, cell division, intracellular transport, and cell signaling. Therefore, the cytoskeleton interacts with several cytoplasmic proteins or organelles.

The cytoskeletal network is composed of three different protein structures named filaments: microtubules, microfilaments (actin), and intermediate filaments. These proteins form their own unique networks within the cell that have different interdependent functions.

Main functions of the cytoskeleton
Structural support
Cell trafficking
Transducer of mechanical signals
Associated with several diseases
Cellular signaling

Actin filament markers

Actin is an abundant protein in all eukaryotic cells. Monomers of the globular actin (G-actin) polymerize to form actin filaments (F-actin), long and thin fibers. These fibers have a diameter of ca. 5–9 nm and form the thinnest of all cytoskeleton fibers. Therefore, they are also named microfilaments. Actin filaments are very flexible and show a helical structure.

Actin filaments form bands close to the plasma membrane. They can form their own network, shaped by several actin-binding proteins. Many different cellular processes related to cell shape or cell motion depend on actin filaments. They are responsible for the mechanical strength of the cell and connect cytoplasmic and transmembrane proteins.

Related antibodies

Antibody name Catalog number Type
ACTN4 10996-1-AP Rabbit Poly
ACTR10 20101-1-AP Rabbit Poly
Rabbit Poly
ARP3 13822-1-AP Rabbit Poly
ARP5 21505-1-AP Rabbit Poly
CAPG-Specific 19535-1-AP Rabbit Poly
CAPZA1 11806-1-AP Rabbit Poly
CORO1A 17760-1-AP Rabbit Poly
CORO1C 14749-1-AP Rabbit Poly
DBNL 13025-1-AP Rabbit Poly
Fascin 14384-1-AP Rabbit Poly

Intermediate filament markers

Intermediate filaments are polymers of different proteins, depending on the cellular context. Thus, intermediate filaments do not have as rigidly defined a structure as actin filaments or microtubules.Regardless of the composition, intermediate filaments have a diameter of around 10 nm. These filaments are less dynamic and flexible than microtubules and actin filaments.

Related antibodies

Antibody name Catalog number Type
NF-H 21471-1-AP Rabbit poly
NF-L 60189-1-IG Mouse mono
NF-M-Specific 20664-1-AP Rabbit poly

The neurofilament proteins belong to the intermediate filament family. Neurofilaments are the 10 nm intermediate filaments found specifically in neurons. They are a major component of the cell’s cytoskeleton, and provide support for normal axonal radial growth. Neurofilaments usually contain three intermediate filament proteins: L, M, and H that are involved in the maintenance of neuronal caliber.

Microtubules markers

Microtubules form the most rigid part of the cytoskeleton and are responsible for the intracellular movement of organelles or proteins. Microtubules are 20 nm in diameter and are composed of alpha and beta tubulin subunits. The formation of microtubules depends on the temperature and available tubulins. Microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) regulate the dynamics of microtubules within a cell.

Related antibodies

Antibody name Catalog number Type
66200-1-IG Mouse Mono
TBCB 15782-1-AP Rabbit Poly
TUBGCP3 15719-1-AP Rabbit Poly
TUBGCP4 17088-1-AP Rabbit Poly
TUBGCP5 14620-1-AP Rabbit Poly